How to Deal With Eye Injuries in Dogs

Some dogs are much more susceptible to eye injuries than others are. Because dogs have poor sight to begin with, it is common for them to have twigs and sharp objects coming in contact with the delicate parts of their eyes. It isn’t possible for an owner to protect a dog completely from eye injuries, but a regular inspection of the eyes can prevent a small problem from becoming a bigger one.

Natural Eye Protection for Dogs

As far as natural protection for a dog’s eyes, about the only thing they have are their long whiskers which are sensitive to touch. When a whisker touches something that the dog may not see, the animal instinctively knows that something is there that can cause harm.

When a dog is groomed and given a haircut, it is common for the whiskers to be cut off so that this line of defense against unseen dangers is removed. This is not necessarily the fault of the groomer because it is almost impossible to cut facial fur without cutting the whiskers too, but it does create a hazard for dogs that spend time outdoors and wander into areas with a lot of undergrowth.

Dogs with long snouts are obviously better prepared to avoid eye injuries if the danger comes from the front. Pugs, Boston Terriers, and other dog breeds with similar shaped heads can easily hurt their eyes anytime they go into the woods and underbrush. Not only are their snouts short, but their eyes are oversized leading to more opportunities for accidents.

Daily Inspection of Your Dog’s Eyes

A daily ritual of checking your dog’s eyes can help avoid complete loss of vision. An examination should be made for ulcerations and redness, as well as to make sure that nothing is caught in the fur near the eyes. Ulcerations will appear as slight scratches on the lens of the eyes. These are painful and may cause the dog to scratch at the irritation, causing even more damage.

Recognizing the Signs of a Dog Eye Problem

At the first sign of ulceration, you should take your dog to the vet. Signs of an ulcer on the eye include squinting, cloudiness, and/or redness. In some cases, there may be discharge coming from the affected eye. The dog will typically be despondent and lethargic because of the discomfort, and you’ll notice an obvious change in your pet’s behavior.

This is an unprotected wound and will allow infection into the eye itself if not addressed promptly. The cornea of the eye has a protective coating called the epithelium, which keeps out germs and bacteria. When it is damaged, it is very important to take proper action to protect the eye quickly.

Treatment of Dog Eye Problems

Your veterinarian will most likely use a stain called fluorescein to make the ulcer more prominent and to properly diagnose the problem. If the vet determines there is a corneal abrasion, infection, or ulcer, a protective salve is usually applied to seal the wound while it heals.

With proper care, a minor eye injury will improve in about a week, but if left unattended, the problem will only get worse. The owner who is not attentive to the needs of his dog may allow an eye problem to advance too far to do anything about, resulting in blindness for the animal.

Watch for the signs of a problem, inspect your dog’s eyes regularly, and take the proper steps if or when a problem does occur. Remember, a healthy dog is a happy dog, and your pet relies on you for his care and welfare.

SNAP 2016: Exam Pattern and Preparation Tips

About SNAP:

The SNAP is the gateway examination to join postgraduate programs offered by institutes of Symbiosis International University. Candidates aspiring to join MBA programs offered by institutes of Symbiosis International University have to take the common, mandatory Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Test. There are 15 MBA colleges which is under SIU will accept SNAP scores for their respective 2 years full time MBA programs.

A candidate used to register for SNAP Test & then register with the institutes offering his/ her choice of program by paying separate institution registration fees. If shortlisted, he/she would then attend the GE-PIWAT process conducted by each of these institutes.

Test Pattern:

The SNAP test is a 2 hour objective test consisting of four sections of 30 minutes each. It has 150 objective type questions of one mark each divided into the various sections. There is also a negative marking scheme wherein 0.25 marks are deducted for every wrong answer. The sections are as follows:

General English – Reading Comprehension, Verbal Reasoning & Verbal Ability: This section is a 40 mark section consisting of 40 questions testing the reading skills, verbal reasoning skills and the verbal ability of the students.

Quantitative, Data Interpretation & Data Sufficiency: This section tests the mathematical aptitude and data interpretation skills of the students. This is also a 40 mark section consisting of 40 questions.

Current Affairs (of last 2 years): This section tests the student’s knowledge of current affairs of two years up to the exam date. This is a 30 mark section consisting of 30 questions.

Analytical & Logical Reasoning: This section tests the analytical and logical reasoning skills of the students. This is a 40 mark section consisting of 40 questions.


To take the test, students must be a graduate from any recognized / statutory University or Institute with a minimum of 50% marks (45% for SC/ST). Programs which require specific discipline/ subject specialisation need to be checked for eligibility as given by the respective Institute.

A candidate who has completed qualifying degree from any Foreign University must obtain an equivalence certificate from the Association of Indian Universities (AIU). All foreign degrees/ qualifications need to be verified from AIU by the candidate before seeking admission to any programme of SIU.

Important Dates of SNAP 2016:

The test is conducted once every year in the second week of December. The exact dates vary every year but generally the last date for registration is during the final week of November. The test results are announced in the first week of January. Here are the 2016 dates.

  • Last Date for Registration: Tuesday, November 22, 2016
  • Last Date for Payment: Friday, November 25, 2016
  • Admit Card: Friday, December 02, 2016 to Sunday, December 18, 2016
  • Date of Test: Sunday, December 18, 2016
  • Test Results: Monday, January 9, 2017

Preparation Tips for SNAP:

Here are the section wise preparation tips which the student can follow to get the maximum mark in each section.

General English Section: This section is the easiest section in the entire SNAP test. It evaluates the areas of Verbal Reasoning, Grammar and Vocabulary with a greater emphasis on vocabulary. The General English section consists of 40 questions out of total 150 questions. In this section, the student must try to attempt 40 questions within 30 minutes

  • Students are advised to read a lot of good fiction and nonfiction books with greater emphasis on American and British novels.
  • Students have to learn a minimum of ten words so as to improve vocabulary. Students are also advised to learn how the various words are used.
  • Any standardized dictionary like the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary or Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary can be referred.

Quantitative, Data Interpretation & Data Sufficiency: SNAP has always placed heavy emphasis on this section. This section tests the quantitative and arithmetical skills of the students. It covers topics like Time and Work, Time and Distance, Mixtures and Alligations, Ratio and Proportion, Averages and Profit & Loss. There might be questions from Geometry and Mensuration too. It consists of 40 questions out of total 150 questions. In this section, the students must try to attempt 28 questions in 40 minutes to be in the safe zone. Here are the preparation tips:

  • Students are advised to revise class 9 and class 10 NCERT books. Practicing from Class 9 and Class 10 RD Sharma books is also a great idea.
  • Students must develop efficient and agile calculation skills. Learning Vedic maths is a very good idea to develop swift calculation skills.
  • Students must develop a comfort level with calculation of squares, cubes and decimal-fraction conversion.

Current Affairs: SNAP is the only aptitude test in India to have a current affairs section in its test. It tests the student’s knowledge of the current affairs of the past two years as on the exam date. This is also an easy section to crack after General English section. Current Affairs section consists of 30 questions out of total 150 questions. Students must try to complete 20 questions in 10 minutes in this section. Here are the preparation tips:

  • Students are advised to be up to date with news relating to the economy, sports, business and current events.
  • Students are advised to develop the habit of reading newspapers like ‘The Hindu’, ‘The Economic Times’ or ‘The Times of India’.
  • Students can also study ‘General Knowledge Digest- Mani Ram’ and ‘Manorama Yearbook’.

Analytical & Logical Reasoning: This is the most important section in the entire test. It tests the logical and critical thinking skills. Analytical & Logical reasoning section consists of 30 questions out of total 150 questions. In this section, the questions will be given in straightforward and easy to solve. Here are the preparation tips:

  • The best way to prepare for this section is to practice puzzle books. Shakuntala Devi Puzzle books and Mensa books are the most useful books for preparation.
  • Students can also refer the book written by RS Aggarwal’ Logical Reasoning. This book is meant especially for the logical reasoning section of various tests like CAT, XAT, SNAP and IIFT.
  • Students can also download and practice past year question papers to effectively prepare for the test. In conclusion, the SNAP exam tests the student’s overall ability to manage. It tests the time management and prioritization skills of the student. Hence, by focusing on improving effective time management and prioritization skills, the student can do very well in the test. All the best!

How to Get Rid of Puffy Eyes

Symptoms of Puffy or Swollen Eyes:

* Puffiness or swelling of the upper and lower eyelids, usually in the morning.

* Occasionally accompanied by itching and/or redness.

* Not able to open or close the eyes.

1. Common Causes of Puffy Eyes:

* Dehydration. When the body gets dehydrated it begins storing up water, which can cause puffy eyes.

* Diet. Drinking alcohol or eating salty foods before going to sleep. Alcohol can cause puffy eyes because it lowers anti-diuretic hormones (ADH) in the body, but the levels will normalize and the puffiness will usually subside at about the same time your hangover subsides.

* Insufficient sleep.

* Allergies. If your puffy eyes are accompanied by redness and itching, the cause may be associated with an allergy. Possible contributing factors include feather pillows, linen fabric, face-creams, dust, pollen, or food.

* Aging. As you get older the skin begins to loose elasticity, causing swollen eyes.

* Hormonal changes. The days just before and during menstruation cause hormone levels to fluctuate, this can result in water retention around the eyelids.

* High blood pressure, which pushes fluids into the tissue around the eyes, can result in swelling.

* Eyelid dermatitis, a rash on the skin which just affects the eyelids, that is usually caused by an allergic reaction to make-up or skin-care products.

* Possible diseases.

o Blepharitis, or inflammation of the eyelid

o Orbital cellulitis, an infection of the orbital tissue

o Chalazions, small tumors on the eyelid that are benign

o Kidney infections

o Thyroid problems

* Drugs. Drugs such as lithium that cause the thyroid to become less productive can also result in swollen eyes.

* Heredity.

2. Preventing Puffy Eyes:

* Stay hydrated!!! If you are thirsty, you are dehydrated. When properly hydrated, your urine will be nearly clear. (Note that some drugs and foods can alter the color of your urine.)

* Lower your salt intake. The body can only store salt in fluid suspension – which will gather in the skin around your eyes. (Bonus: Lowering your salt consumption can improve your overall health.)

* Never sleep wearing eye make-up. Regardless of how tired you may be, always use an eye make-up remover and continue until the cotton ball or pad shows no signs of make-up. Use a cotton pad rather than a tissue because it is less irritating. Removing eye make-up will prevent it from entering the eyelid and causing irritation.

* Tainted eye makeup can cause puffy eyesBeware of bacteria. Speaking of eye make-up…Do not use mascara or any other eye product that is older than a few months. Bacteria that have grown in the make-up would love a new home in your eyes, and will cause your eyelids to swell. On this note it is probably a good idea not to share your eye products with anyone else either.

* Be sure you get enough quality, regular sleep.

* Sleep with your head elevated to allow better circulation and prevent fluid from collecting around your eyes.

* Sleep on your back so that gravity does not route fluid directly to your eyes.

3. How to Get Rid of Puffy Eyes:

There are many methods for preventing and eliminating swelling of the eyes. Some however, will require time and patience before you see results. Following are some natural remedies for puffy eyes.

Getting Rid of Puffy Eyes:

* Wear a mask that is filled with cold water or gel for a few minutes when you wake up in the morning.

* Wrap pieces of ice in paper towels and place them on your eyelids for a few minutes. The cold will reduce the swelling.

* Keep your eye creams in the refrigerator. The cool cream will help reduce your puffy eyes. When applying the cream, gently tap it onto your eyelid with your ring finger, so as to stimulate fluid drainage.

* Keep two teaspoons in the refrigerator and when you have an attack of the swollen eyelids; rest them on your eyelids for a minimum of one minute or until they warm up.

* Soak cotton-wool pads in a bowl of ice-cold milk and then squeeze most of the liquid out. Place the pads on your eyes and repeat as they warm up for about 15 minutes. This will also brighten the white in your eye.

* Dip cotton balls in ice water, and then squeeze the water out. Apply the cotton balls to your eyes for 5-10 minutes.

* Place black or chamomile teabags soaked in cold water on your eyelids for 15 minutes. The tannic acid in tea will constrict the blood vessels and reduce inflammation. To accelerate drainage, gently press from the inside corner to the outside corner of the swollen eye.

* Place slices of cucumber, potatoes, or apple over the puffy eyelids for 10-15 minutes. Potatoes will reduce dark circles under the eyes and apples have pectin which aids in anti-oxidation.

* Give your eyes a salt bath by soaking cotton pads in a saline solution or a solution of one teaspoon of salt in one pint of hot water. Place the pads on your puffy eyelids for a few minutes.

* Taking over the counter diuretics can help reduce fluid retention, especially if you experience bloating before your period. (Note: Diuretics also lower your blood pressure, so be sure to have yours checked before going this route.)

* Apply a hemorrhoid cream to the puffy area around the puffy eye, being EXTREMELY CAREFUL not to get any in your eye. Be sure to look for a cream that contains yeast and shark’s liver oil.

*Allergy related puffiness can become a permanent condition if not treated and eliminated. When the connective tissues in the eye become damaged from repeated swelling, the skin stretches and becomes looser. This can result in pouches under your eye, called blepharitis, because the fat around the eye has bulged. These pouches do not respond to home remedies like normal, occasional puffiness does. There is a minor surgery that can be performed called “blepharoplasty,” where the surgeon makes a very small incision under the lower eyelid to remove the excess skin, eliminating the pouches.
The Great Eye Gel Debate:

Many people question whether over the counter eye gels work. Some of these gels contain ingredients such as chamomile or witch hazel which have been known to reduce puffiness. The gels can be beneficial when worn under make-up because they act as a primer, making it easier for the make-up to glide on. The make-up will not flake off as easy and therefore will not irritate your eyes. These eye gels are water-based rather than oil-based which means that they will moisten the skin and hide lines, rather than make it greasy. If you keep your gel in the refrigerator the temperature alone will help soothe and refresh your eyes.